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It's a common condition where cells of lining of the womb (endometrium) are found elsewhere, usually in the pelvis, ovaries, fallopian tubes & around uterus. It is not cancer. It is not an infection.
What symptoms will I have?
The main symptoms include
* Pelvic pain
* Pain during or after sex
* Painful, Heavy periods
* Problems with getting pregnant
Polycystic ovaries are slightly larger than normal ovaries & have twice the number of follicles (small cysts).It is very common affecting 20 in 100 women(20%)
Having Polycystic ovaries doesn't mean that you have polycystic ovarian syndrome. The incidence is 6 or 7 in 100 women (6%-7%).
The symptoms include
* irregular periods or no periods
* difficulty becoming pregnant
* having excessive body/facial hair than usual
* loss of hair on head (excessive hair fall)
* overweight, rapid increase in weight or difficulty losing weight
What are the long term health issues if I have pcos?
* Insulin resistance & Diabetes
* High Blood pressure
* Heart disease in later life
* With fewer periods, risk of Endometrial cancer is increased
Pcos doesn't increase your chance of Breast, Cervical or ovarian cancer
It is the point when a woman's periods stop permanently. The average age of menopause is 51, but ranges between 40 t0 55.
The most common symptom of menopause is "HOT FLUSHES". It is the sudden feeling of heat that rushes to the upper body &face. Skin may redden & last for few seconds to several minutes. You might have sleep disturbances, mood changes, pain during sex, vaginal & frequent urinary problems.
It is a screening test done in the OPD .It helps to check for changes in the cells of your cervix like infection, abnormal cells or cancer.
Usually ,we start screening few years after you enter into sexually active life. The guidelines in general would be
* start screening at 20-25 until 50 or 60
* every 2 yrs if more than 30 yrs of age.
* screen every 3-5 yrs until normal results
* stop screening at 65,unless results recent abnormal results.
* no need to screen after a complete hysterectomy done for benign disease
The frequency depends on the individual patient & her risk and so consult your gynecologist.
Yes. Pap smear test is compulsory even if already vaccinated!
Since Pap test is a screening test ,we intend to pick up abnormalities of cervix at the preclinical stage. A regular pap screen with follow up can reduce cancer cervix by about 80%.
Pap test is a screening test and hence there could be false positives & false negatives. Adeno carcinoma of cervix has not been shown to be prevented by pap test.
Usually it's done by your Gynecologist at her office. Fix up an appointment about 10-15 days after your periods . Avoid vaginal douching, sprays, deodorants & sex for at least 1-2 days before the procedure.
Failure to conceive after regular unprotected intercour Yes. Female fertility declines with age, but the effect of age on male fertility is less clear
WHEN SHOULD A COUPLE GO FOR INFERTILITY TREATMENT?
* If after 1 year of trying, no pregnancy occurred.
* If female partner more than 35 yrs, earlier investigation needed.
* If h/o menstrual irregularities, Pelvic infection, coital difficulties, undescended testis, couple need to consult early.
Yes. Counseling is very important since it involves a lot of psychological stress.
The basic investigations needed before starting any infertility treatment are semen analysis, confirmation of ovulation & documentation of tubal patency.
IUI means placing the prepared sperm inside the uterine cavity.
The overall success rate is about 20%-40%
Referral for IVF is recommended in case of failure to achieve a pregnancy in 4 to 6 cycles.
Possible! Many women get abdominal pain during pregnancy due to harmless reasons like ligament pain, enlarging uterus ,Baby movements ,Braxton-Hicks contraction(false labour), Gas/constipation
When the pain is sudden, severe ,persistent or associated with fever, chills, spotting/bleeding pv ,then it is significant.
The serious causes include acute Appendicitis ,Gall bladder disease, Bowel obstruction, Pancreatitis, Perforated ulcer, Kidney stones, Sickle cell crisis, Pneumonia, Gastroenteritis, trauma ,etc Significant serious causes related to pregnancy include Ectopic pregnancy, Miscarriage, Preterm labour, Placental abruption ,Pre- eclampsia,UTI, etc
There's chance of many health problems especially with eyes, ears, breathing &nervous system. They tend to grow more slowly. There may be learning & behavioral problems as they grow
If you have symptoms like
increased vaginal discharge(watery, mucus ,blood)
pelvic or low abdominal pain
constant low dull back ache
mild abdominal cramps
regular, frequent uterine contractions
If there's leakage of Amniotic fluid before 37 weeks, it's PPROM - 2 in 100 (2%)
You will feel wet/damp. Amniotic fluid will be clear or pinkish in color, green-brown or blood stained.
Leakage of urine is common during pregnancy. So, keep an under pad to note the color & amount of fluid leaking. If u think it's amniotic fluid, contact your obstetrician immediately.
Treatment is aimed to reduce the complications Depending on the duration of pregnancy, you may need to have ..Antibiotics to reduce chance of infection ..Course of steroid injections to help baby's lung development ..Medication to stop contraction if you need to be transferred to a tertiary care center with good NICU
Having had preterm delivery means that you are at increased risk of preterm labour (PTL) in the next pregnancy also ! ( depending on the cause of previous PTL)
Normally, changes in cervix (mouth of womb) should begin at the beginning of labour, after about 9 months of pregnancy. But, in some women, due to pressure from growing fetus on the uterus, the Cervix opens prematurely leading to delivery, which may happen between 16 to 24 weeks of pregnancy. A h/O 2nd or early 3rd trimester fetal loss, after painless cervical dilatation , prolapse or Rupture of membranes & expulsion of a live fetus despite minimal uterine activity, is characteristic of cervical insufficiency.
Cervical encerclage is a stitch made in the cervix to provide structural support to the weak cervix.
If prophylactic cerclage (past obstetric history indicated) planned, you may need it around 12 to 14 weeks .But it can be done when Usg (scan) shows cervical shortening , usually around 14 to 24 weeks.
Pregnant women with a h/o spontaneous 2nd trimester loss or preterm birth who have not undergone a history indicated cerclage may be offered serial sonagraphic surveillance which is an alternative option to prophylactic cerclage. If patient shows cervical shortening , they are at increased risk of preterm birth & may need cerclage. If cervix remains long, they have a low risk of 2nd trimester loss/preterm birth.
If placenta attaches too low in the womb and covers a part or whole of the entrance to the womb(cervix),it's called as low lying placenta
In most cases, placenta is carried upwards as the womb stretches over the growing baby & so not a problem. If it continues to lie in the lower part in the last months of pregnancy, this is placenta praevia and you may anticipate some problems before or during delivery.
You need to have one extra scan at around 8 months of pregnancy to check if placenta is still low lying. If you continue to have low lying placenta, then depending on the severity of the condition, the management is individualized & carefully follow your Doctor's advice
The special fetal tests include fetal(baby) movement count, Ultrasound, Doppler Ultrasound of Umbilical artery & other arteries, Non stress test (NST),Biophysical profile(BPP).
If the pregnancy is at risk, special fetal testing at frequent intervals may be needed to assess the health of the baby.. (eg) Blood disorder ,Thyroid disorder ,Heart disease, Kidney disease, Diabetes, High BP during pregnancy, Decreased Baby movement, Too much (or) too little Amniotic fluid, prior fetal death, postdated pregnancy etc..
NST is the most common special fetal test .It measures the baby's heart rate in response baby's own movements. It is done to assess the health of the baby inside the womb.
Normally pregnancy occurs inside the uterus. If it is located out side the uterus, it is called Ectopic pregnancy.
Commonly, you will miss your period with abdominal or pelvic pain & vaginal spotting or bleeding, giddiness or syncope.
You need to immediately consult your obstetrician because rupture of EP is a life threatening emergency.
The treatment options include medical or surgical. It depends on your general condition, status of EP & local facilities available @ hospital.
It is the inflammation of uterus /fallopian tubes.
You may have lower abdominal pain with menstrual disturbances & change in color or smell of vaginal discharge.
Early treatment avoids complication. The complication include Infertility (risk increases after each attack), Ectopic pregnancy Long term pelvic pain & pelvic abscess.
Urine infection caused by germs (bacteria) is called UTI.
It is commonly seen in pregnancy because of mechanical & hormonal influences.
Yes. It should be promptly treated to avoid complications.
Fever with chills, painful urination, frequent urination , flank pain etc.
Yes. Asymptomatic UTI in pregnancy is common which also needs treatment.
1. Drink lots of fluid
2. Don’t hold bladder for long hours
3. Proper perineal hygiene
4. Follow your Doctor’s instructions carefully.
Thyroid is an endocrine gland present in the neck & it’s secretion directly enter into the blood stream.
1. Less hormone secretion from thyroid –hypothyroidism.
2. More hormone secretion hypothyroidism.
3. Nodule from thyroid – goiter.
1. Thyroid hormone profile .
2. Scan of the neck
3. FNAC of thyroid
If there is defect in thyroid hormone secretion, medicines can be given. For goiter problem surgery may be advised after evaluation
Appendicitis is nothing but infection in the appendix which is a vestigial organ.
Appendicitis usually diagnosed clinically by Doctor and confirmed by scan test.
Appendicitis usually treated surgically and now a days it is done by Laparoscopic route.
Laparoscopic surgery performed through a small hole and post operative pain is very low. After laparoscopy, people can ambulate very early( may be next day itself).
Stone formation in gallbladder is gallstone disease or cholecystitis.
Gallbladder stone may produce many problems like cholecystitis ,jaundice , pancreatitis and digestion problems.
Gallbladder stone are usually diagnosed by ultra sound scan and MRI scan may be required in selective patients.
Surgical removal of gallbladder is the treatment for gallbladder stones and it is done through laparoscopy now a days.
Gold standard treatment for gallbladder stone is laparoscopic Cholecystectomy and it is safe if performed by experienced laparoscopic surgeon.